v_fat_15  

0112images  

http://www.cnculture.net/ebook/jing/sishu/daxuezhangjv.html

 

《大學章句》宋朱熹撰


《大學》章句

宋 朱熹撰

目錄:
  一、《大學章句》序
  二、《大學章句》正文(宋朱熹撰)
  三、《大學》正文(宋朱熹刊定)

 

《<大學>章句

《大學》之書,古之大學所以教人之法也。葢自天降生民,則旣莫不與之以仁、義、禮、智之性矣。然其氣質之稟,或不能齊,是以不能皆有以知其性之所有而全之也。一有聦明睿智能盡其性者,出於其閒,則天必命之以爲億兆之君師,使之治而教之,以復其性。此伏羲、神農、黃帝、堯、舜所以繼天立極,而司徒之職、典樂之官所由設也。

三代之隆,其法寖備,然後王宮、國都以及閭巷,莫不有學。人生八歲,則自王公以下,至於庶人之子弟,皆入小學,而教之以灑、埽、應、對、進、退之節,禮、樂、射、御、書、數之文。及其十有五年,則自天子之元子、眾子,以至公、卿、大夫、元士之適子,與凡民之俊秀,皆入大學,而教之以窮理、正心、修己、治人之道。此又學校之教、大小之節所以分也。

夫以學校之設,其廣如此;教之之術,其次第節目之詳又如此。而其所以爲教,則又皆本之人君躬行心得之餘,不待求之民生日用彝倫之外。是以當世之人無不學。其學焉者,無不有以知其性分之所固有,職分之所當爲,而各俛焉以盡其力。此古昔盛時,所以治隆於上,俗美於下,而非後世之所能及也!

及周之衰,賢聖之君不作,學校之政不修,教化陵夷,風俗頹敗。時則有若孔子之聖,而不得君師之位,以行其政教,於是獨取先王之法,誦而傳之,以詔後世。若《曲禮》《少儀》《內則》《弟子職》諸篇,固小學之支流餘裔。而此篇者,則因小學之成功,以著大學之明法,外有以極其規模之大,而內有以盡其節目之詳者也。三千之徒,葢莫不聞其說,而曾氏之傳,獨得其宗。於是作爲傳義,以發其意。及孟子沒,而其傳泯焉,則其書雖存,而知者鮮矣!

自是以來,俗儒記誦詞章之習,其功倍于小學而無用;異端虛無寂滅之教,其高過於大學而無實;其他權謀術數,一切以就功名之說,與夫百家眾技之流,所以惑世誣民、充塞仁義者,又紛然雜出乎其閒。使其君子不幸,而不得聞大道之要;其小人不幸,而不得蒙至治之澤。晦盲否塞,反復沈痼。以及五季之衰,而壞亂極矣!

天運循環,無往不復。宋德隆盛,治教休明。於是,河南程氏兩夫子出,而有以接乎孟氏之傳,實始尊信此篇,而表章之。旣又爲之次其簡編,發其歸趣。然後,古者大學教人之法,聖經賢傳之指,粲然復明於世。雖以熹之不敏,亦幸私淑而與有聞焉。

顧其爲書猶頗放失,是以忘其固陋,采而輯之,閒亦竊附己意,補其闕畧,以俟後之君子。極知僭踰,無所逃罪,然於國家化民成俗之意,學者脩己治人之方,則未必無小補云。

淳熙己酉二月甲子新安朱熹序

 

  大學章句,大,舊音“泰”,今讀如字。

【英譯:James Legge】

子程子曰:“《大學》,孔氏之遺書,而初學入德之門也。”於今可見古人爲學次第者,獨賴此篇之存,而《論》《孟》次之。學者必由是而學焉,則庶乎其不差矣。

My master, the philosopher Ch'ang, says: "The Great Learning is a Book transmitted by the Confucian School, and forms the gate by which the first learners enter into virtue. That we can now perceive the order in which the ancients pursued their learning is solely owing to the preservation of this work, the Analects and Mencius coming after it. Learners must commence their course with this, and then it may be hoped they will be kept from error."

大學之道,在明明德,在親民,在止於至善。

What the Great Learning teaches, is—to illustrate illustrious virtue; to renovate the people; and to rest in the highest excellence.

程子曰:“親,當作新。”〇大學者,大人之學也。明,明之也。明德者,人之所得乎天,而虛靈不昧,以具眾理而應萬事者也。但爲氣稟所拘,人欲所蔽,則有時而昏;然其本體之明,則有未嘗息者。故學者當因其所發而遂明之,以復其初也。新者,革其舊之謂也。言旣自明其明德,又當推以及人,使之亦有以去其舊染之汙也。止者,必至於是而不遷之意。至善,則事理當然之極也。言明明德、新民,皆當至於至善之地而不遷。葢必其有以盡夫天理之極,而無一毫人欲之私也。此三者,大學之綱領也。

知止而后有定,定而后能靜,靜而后能安,安而后能慮,慮而后能得。

The point where to rest being known, the object of pursuit is then determined; and, that being determined, a calm unperturbedness may be attained to. To that calmness there will succeed a tranquil repose. In that repose there may be careful deliberation, and that deliberation will be followed by the attainment of the desired end.

后,與“後”同,後放此。〇止者,所當止之地,卽至善之所在也。知之,則志有定向。靜,謂心不妄動。安,謂所處而安。慮,謂處事精詳。得,謂得其所止。

物有本末,事有終始,知所先後,則近道矣。

Things have their root and their branches. Affairs have their end and their beginning. To know what is first and what is last will lead near to what is taught in the Great Learning.

明德爲本,新民爲末。知止爲始,能得爲終。本始所先,末終所後。此結上文兩節之意。

古之欲明明德於天下者,先治其國;欲治其國者,先齊其家;欲齊其家者,先脩其身;欲脩其身者,先正其心;欲正其心者,先誠其意;欲誠其意者,先致其知;致知在格物。

The ancients who wished to illustrate illustrious virtue throughout the kingdom, first ordered well their own States. Wishing to order well their States, they first regulated their families. Wishing to regulate their families, they first cultivated their persons. Wishing to cultivate their persons, they first rectified their hearts. Wishing to rectify their hearts, they first sought to be sincere in their thoughts. Wishing to be sincere in their thoughts, they first extended to the utmost their knowledge. Such extension of knowledge lay in the investigation of things.

治,平聲,後放此。〇明明德於天下者,使天下之人皆有以明其明德也。心者,身之所主也。誠,實也。意者,心之所發也。實其心之所發,欲其一於善而無自欺也。致,推極也。知,猶識也。推極吾之知識,欲其所知無不盡也。格,至也。物,猶事也。窮至事物之理,欲其極處無不到也。此八者,大學之條目也。

物格而后知至,知至而后意誠,意誠而后心正,心正而后身脩,身脩而后家齊,家齊而后國治,國治而后天下平。

Things being investigated, knowledge became complete. Their knowledge being complete, their thoughts were sincere. Their thoughts being sincere, their hearts were then rectified. Their hearts being rectified, their persons were cultivated. Their persons being cultivated, their families were regulated. Their families being regulated, their States were rightly governed. Their States being rightly governed, the whole kingdom was made tranquil and happy.

治,去聲,後放此。〇物格者,物理之極處無不到也。知至者,吾心之所知無不盡也。知旣盡,則意可得而實矣。意旣實,則心可得而正矣。脩身以上,明明德之事也。齊家以下,新民之事也。物格知至,則知所止矣。意誠以下,則皆得所止之序也。

自天子以至於庶人,壹是皆以脩身爲本。

From the Son of Heaven down to the mass of the people, all must consider the cultivation of the person the root of everything besides.

壹是,一切也。正心以上,皆所以脩身也。齊家以下,則舉此而措之耳。

其本亂而末治者,否矣。其所厚者薄,而其所薄者厚,未之有也!

It cannot be, when the root is neglected, that what should spring from it will be well ordered.It never has been the case that what was of great importance has been slightly cared for, and, at the same time, that what was of slight importance has been greatly cared for.

本,謂身也。所厚,謂家也。此兩節結上文兩節之意。

右經一章,葢孔子之言,而曾子述之。凡二百五字。其傳十章,則曾子之意而門人記之也。舊本頗有錯簡,今因程子所定,而更考經文,別爲序次如左:

The preceding chapter of classical text is in the words of Confucius, handed down by the philosopher Zeng. The ten chapters of explanation which follow contain the views of Zeng, and were recorded by his disciples. In the old copies of the work, there appeared considerable confusion in these, from the disarrangement of the tablets. But now, availing myself of the decisions of the philosopher Cheng, and having examined anew the classical text, I have arranged it in order, as follows:

凡千五百四十六字。〇凡傳文,雜引經傳,若無統紀。然文理接續,血脈貫通,深淺始終,至爲精密。熟讀詳味,久當見之,今不盡釋也。


《康誥》曰:“克明德。”

In the Announcement to Kang, it is said, “He was able to make his virtue illustrious.”

《康誥》,《周書》。克,能也。

《大甲》曰:“顧諟天之明命。”

In the Tai Jia, it is said, “He contemplated and studied the illustrious decrees of Heaven.”

大,讀作“泰”。諟,古“是”字。〇《大甲》,《商書》。顧,謂常目在之也。諟,猶此也,或曰審也。天之明命,卽天之所以與我,而我之所以爲德者也。常目在之,則無時不明矣。

《帝典》曰:“克明峻德。”

In the Canon of the emperor (Yao), it is said, “He was able to make illustrious his lofty virtue.”

峻,《書》作“俊”。《帝典》,《堯典》,《虞書》。峻,大也。

皆自明也。

These passages all show how those sovereigns made themselves illustrious.

結所引《書》,皆言自明己德之意。

右傳之首章,釋明明德。

The above first chapter of commentary explains the illustration of illustrious virtue.

此通下三章至“止於信”,舊本誤在“沒世不忘”之下。


湯之盤銘曰:“苟日新,日日新,又日新。”

On the bathing tub of Tang, the following words were engraved:— “If you can one day renovate yourself, do so from day to day. Yea, let there be daily renovation.”

盤,沐浴之盤也。銘,名其器以自警之辭也。苟,誠也。湯以人之洗濯其心以去惡,如沐浴其身以去垢。故銘其盤,言誠能一日有以滌其舊染之汙而自新,則當因其已新者,而日日新之,又日新之,不可畧有間斷也。

《康誥》曰:“作新民。”

In the Announcement to Kang, it is said, “To stir up the new people.”

鼓之舞之之謂作,言振起其自新之民也。

《詩》曰:“周雖舊邦,其命惟新。”

In the Book of Poetry, it is said, “Although Zhou was an ancient State, the ordinance which lighted on it was new.”

《詩·大雅·文王》之篇。言周國雖舊,至於文王,能新其德以及於民,而始受天命也。

是故,君子無所不用其極。

Therefore the superior man in everything uses his utmost endeavours.

自新新民,皆欲止於至善也。

右傳之二章,釋新民。

The above second chapter of commentary explains the renovating of the people.


《詩》云:“邦畿千里,惟民所止。”

In the Book of Poetry, it is said, “The royal domain of a thousand li is where the people rest.”

《詩·商頌·玄鳥》之篇。邦畿,王者之都也。止,居也,言物各有所當止之處也。

《詩》云:“緡蠻黃鳥,止於丘隅。”子曰:“於止,知其所止,可以人而不如鳥乎!”

In the Book of Poetry, it is said, “The twittering yellow bird rests on a corner of the mound.” The Master said, “When it rests, it knows where to rest. Is it possible that a man should not be equal to this bird?”

緡,《詩》作“綿”。〇《詩·小雅·綿蠻》之篇。緡蠻,鳥聲。丘隅,岑蔚之處。“子曰”以下,孔子說《詩》之辭,言人當知所當止之處也。

《詩》云:“穆穆文王,於緝熙敬止!”爲人君,止於仁;爲人臣,止於敬;爲人子,止於孝;爲人父,止于慈;與國人交,止於信。

In the Book of Poetry, it is said, “Profound was king Wen. With how bright and unceasing a feeling of reverence did he regard his resting places!” As a sovereign, he rested in benevolence. As a minister, he rested in reverence. As a son, he rested in filial piety. As a father, he rested in kindness. In communication with his subjects, he rested in good faith.

“於緝”之“於”,音“烏”。〇《詩·文王》之篇。穆穆,深遠之意。於,歎美辭。緝,繼續也。熙,光明也。敬止,言其無不敬而安所止也。引此而言聖人之止,無非至善。五者乃其目之大者也。學者于此,究其精微之蘊,而又推類以盡其餘,則於天下之事,皆有以知其所止而無疑矣。

《詩》云:“瞻彼淇澳,菉竹猗猗。有斐君子,如切如磋,如琢如磨。瑟兮僩兮,赫兮喧兮。有斐君子,終不可諠兮!”

In the Book of Poetry, it is said, “Look at that winding course of the Qi, with the green bamboos so luxuriant! Here is our elegant and accomplished prince! As we cut and then file; as we chisel and then grind: so has he cultivated himself. How grave is he and dignified! How majestic and distinguished! Our elegant and accomplished prince never can be forgotten.”

如切如磋者,道學也;如琢如磨者,自脩也;瑟兮僩兮者,恂栗也;赫兮喧兮者,威儀也;有斐君子,終不可諠兮者,道盛德至善,民之不能忘也。

That expression— “As we cut and then file,” indicates the work of learning.“As we chisel and then grind”, indicates that of self-culture. “How grave is he and dignified!” indicates the feeling of cautious reverence. “How commanding and distinguished!” indicates an awe-inspiring deportment. “Our elegant and accomplished prince never can be forgotten,” indicates how, when virtue is complete and excellence extreme, the people cannot forget them.

澳,於六反。菉,《詩》作“綠”。猗,叶韻音“阿”。僩,下版反。喧,《詩》作“咺”;諠,《詩》作“諼”:並況晚反。恂,鄭氏讀作“峻”。〇《詩·衞風·淇澳》之篇。淇,水名。澳,隈也。猗猗,美盛貌。興也。斐,文貌。切以刀鋸,琢以椎鑿,皆裁物使成形質也。磋以鑢鍚,磨以沙石,皆治物使其滑澤也。治骨角者,旣切而復磋之;治玉石者,旣琢而復磨之:皆言其治之有緒,而益致其精也。瑟,嚴密之貌。僩,武毅之貌。赫喧,宣著盛大之貌。諠,忘也。道,言也。學,謂講習討論之事。自脩者,省察克治之功。恂栗,戰懼也。威,可畏也。儀,可象也。引《詩》而釋之,以明“明明德者”之“止於至善”。“道學”、“自脩”,言其所以得之之由。“恂栗”、“威儀”,言其德容表裏之盛。卒乃指其實而歎美之也。

《詩》云:“於戲,前王不忘!”君子賢其賢而親其親,小人樂其樂而利其利,此以沒世不忘也。

In the Book of Poetry, it is said, “Ah! the former kings are not forgotten.” Future princes deem worthy what they deemed worthy, and love what they loved. The common people delight in what delighted them, and are benefited by their beneficial arrangements. It is on this account that the former kings, after they have quitted the world, are not forgotten.

“於戲”,音“嗚呼”。樂,音“洛”。〇《詩·周頌·烈文》之篇。於戲,歎辭。前王,謂文、武也。君子,謂其後賢後王。小人,謂後民也。此言前王所以新民者止於至善,能使天下後世無一物不得其所,所以旣沒世而人思慕之,愈久而不忘也。此兩節咏歎淫泆,其味深長,當熟玩之。

右傳之三章,釋止於至善。

The above third chapter of commentary explains resting in the highest excellence.

此章內自引《淇澳》詩以下,舊本誤在《誠意章》下。


子曰:“聽訟,吾猶人也,必也使無訟乎!”無情者不得盡其辭。大畏民志,此謂知本。

The Master said, “In hearing litigations, I am like any other body. What is necessary is to cause the people to have no litigations.” So, those who are devoid of principle find it impossible to carry out their speeches, and a great awe would be struck into men's minds;— this is called knowing the root.

猶人,不異於人也。情,實也。引夫子之言,而言聖人能使無實之人不敢盡其虛誕之辭。葢我之明德旣明,自然有以畏服民之心志,故訟不待聽而自無也。觀於此言,可以知本末之先後矣。

右傳之四章,釋本末。

The above fourth chapter of commentary explains the root and the issue.

此章舊本誤在“止於信”下。


此謂知本,

This is called knowing the root.

程子曰:“衍文也。”

此謂知之至也。

This is called the perfecting of knowledge.

此句之上別有闕文,此特其結語耳。

右傳之五章,葢釋格物、致知之義,而今亡矣。此章舊本通下章,誤在經文之下。

閒嘗竊取程子之意以補之曰:

“所謂致知在格物者,言欲致吾之知,在卽物而窮其理也。葢人心之靈莫不有知,而天下之物莫不有理,惟於理有未窮,故其知有不盡也。是以大學始教,必使學者卽凡天下之物,莫不因其已知之理而益窮之,以求至乎其極。至於用力之久,而一旦豁然貫通焉,則眾物之表裏精粗無不到,而吾心之全體大用無不明矣。此謂物格,此謂知之至也。”

The above fifth chapter of the commentary explained the meaning of "investigating things and carrying knowledge to the utmost extent," but it is now lost. I have ventured to take the views of the scholar Cheng to supply it, as follows: The meaning of the expression, "The perfecting of knowledge depends on the investigation of things, is this:—If we wish to carry our knowledge to the utmost, we must investigate the principles of all things we come into contact with, for the intelligent mind of man is certainly formed to know, and there is not a single thing in which its principles do not inhere. But so long as all principles are not investigated, man's knowledge is incomplete. On this account, the Learning for Adults, at the outset of its lessons, instructs the learner, in regard to all things in the world, to proceed from what knowledge he has of their principles, and pursue his investigaton of them, till he reaches the extreme point. After exerting himself in this way for a long time, he will suddenly find himself possessed of a wide and far-reaching penetration. Then, the qualities of all things, whether external or internal, the subtle or the coarse, will all be apprehended, and the mind, in its entire substance and its relations to things, will be perfectly intelligent. This is called the investigation of things. This is called the perfection of knowledge.


所謂誠其意者:毋自欺也,如惡惡臭,如好好色,此之謂自謙,故君子必愼其獨也!

What is meant by “making the thoughts sincere,” is the allowing no self-deception, as when we hate a bad smell, and as when we love what is beautiful. This is called self-enjoyment. Therefore, the superior man must be watchful over himself when he is alone.

惡、好上字,皆去聲。謙,讀爲“慊”,苦劫反。〇誠其意者,自脩之首也。毋者,禁止之辭。自欺云者,知爲善以去惡,而心之所發有未實也。謙,快也,足也。獨者,人所不知而己所獨知之地也。言欲自脩者,知爲善以去其惡,則當實用其力,而禁止其自欺。使其惡惡則如惡惡臭,好善則如好好色,皆務決去,而求必得之,以自快足於己,不可徒苟且以殉外而爲人也。然其實與不實,葢有他人所不及知而己獨知之者,故必謹之於此以審其幾焉。

小人閒居爲不善,無所不至,見君子而後厭然,揜其不善,而著其善。人之視己,如見其肺肝然,則何益矣?此謂誠於中,形於外,故君子必愼其獨也。

There is no evil to which the mean man, dwelling retired, will not proceed, but when he sees a superior man, he instantly tries to disguise himself, concealing his evil, and displaying what is good. The other beholds him, as if he saw his heart and reins;— of what use is his disguise? This is an instance of the saying—“What truly is within will be manifested without.” Therefore, the superior man must be watchful over himself when he is alone.

閒,音“閑”。厭,鄭氏讀爲“黶”。〇閒居,獨處也。厭然,消沮閉藏之貌。此言小人陰爲不善,而陽欲揜之,則是非不知“善之當爲與惡之當去”也,但不能實用其力以至此耳。然欲揜其惡而卒不可揜,欲詐爲善而卒不可詐,則亦何益之有哉!此君子所以重以爲戒,而必謹其獨也。

曾子曰:“十目所視,十手所指,其嚴乎!”

The disciple Zeng said, “What ten eyes behold, what ten hands point to, is to be regarded with reverence!

引此以明上文之意。言雖幽獨之中,而其善惡之不可揜如此。可畏之甚也。

富潤屋,德潤身,心寬體胖,故君子必誠其意。

Riches adorn a house, and virtue adorns the person. The mind is expanded, and the body is at ease. Therefore, the superior man must make his thoughts sincere.

胖,步丹反。〇胖,安舒也。言富則能潤屋矣,德則能潤身矣,故心無愧怍,則廣大寬平,而體常舒泰,德之潤身者然也。葢善之實於中而形於外者如此,故又言此以結之。

右傳之六章,釋誠意。

The above sixth chapter of commentary explains making the thoughts sincere.

經曰:“欲誠其意,先致其知。”又曰:“知至而後意誠。”葢心體之明有所未盡,則其所發必有不能實用其力,而苟焉以自欺者。然或己明而不謹乎此,則其所明又非己有,而無以爲進德之基。故此章之指,必承上章而通考之,然後有以見其用力之始終,其序不可亂而功不可闕如此云。


所謂脩身在正其心者:身有所忿懥,則不得其正;有所恐懼,則不得其正;有所好樂,則不得其正;有所憂患,則不得其正。

What is meant by, “The cultivation of the person depends on rectifying the mind” may be thus illustrated:— If a man be under the influence of passion, he will be incorrect in his conduct. He will be the same, if he is under the influence of terror, or under the influence of fond regard, or under that of sorrow and distress.

程子曰:“‘身有’之‘身’當作‘心’。”忿,弗粉反。懥,勑值反。好、樂,並去聲。〇忿懥,怒也。葢是四者,皆心之用,而人所不能無者。然一有之而不能察,則欲動情勝,而其用之所行,或不能不失其正矣。

心不在焉,視而不見,聽而不聞,食而不知其味。

When the mind is not present, we look and do not see; we hear and do not understand; we eat and do not know the taste of what we eat.

心有不存,則無以檢其身。是以君子必察乎此,而敬以直之,然後此心常存,而身無不脩也。

此謂脩身在正其心。

This is what is meant by saying that the cultivation of the person depends on the rectifying of the mind.

右傳之七章,釋正心、脩身。

The above seventh chapter of commentary explains rectifying the mind and cultivating the person.

此亦承上章以起下章。葢意誠則真無惡而實有善矣,所以能存是心以檢其身。然或但知誠意,而不能密察此心之存否,則又無以直內而脩身也。〇自此以下,並以舊文爲正。


所謂齊其家在脩其身者:人之其所親愛而辟焉,之其所賤惡而辟焉,之其所畏敬而辟焉,之其所哀矜而辟焉,之其所敖惰而辟焉。故好而知其惡,惡而知其美者,天下鮮矣!

What is meant by “The regulation of one's family depends on the cultivation of his person,” is this:— Men are partial where they feel affection and love; partial where they despise and dislike; partial here they stand in awe and reverence; partial where they feel sorrow and compassion; partial where they are arrogant and rude. Thus it is that there are few men in the world, who love and at the same time know the bad qualities of the object of their love, or who hate and yet know the excellences of the object of their hatred.

辟,讀爲“僻”。“惡而”之“惡”、敖、好,並去聲。鮮,上聲。〇人,謂眾人。之,猶於也。辟,猶偏也。五者在人,本有當然之則。然常人之情,惟其所向,而不加審焉,則必陷於一偏,而身不脩矣。

故諺有之曰:“人莫知其子之惡,莫知其苗之碩。”

Hence it is said, in the common adage, “A man does not know the wickedness of his son; he does not know the richness of his growing corn.”

諺,音“彥”。碩,叶韻時若反。〇諺,俗語也。溺愛者不明,貪得者無厭,是則偏之爲害,而家之所以不齊也。

此謂身不脩不可以齊其家。

This is what is meant by saying that if the person be not cultivated, a man cannot regulate his family.

右傳之八章,釋脩身、齊家。

The above eighth chapter of commentary explains cultivating the person and regulating the family.


所謂治國必先齊其家者:其家不可教而能教人者,無之。故君子不出家,而成教于國。孝者,所以事君也。弟者,所以事長也。慈者,所以使眾也。

What is meant by “In order rightly to govern the State, it is necessary first to regulate the family,” is this:— It is not possible for one to teach others, while he cannot teach his own family. Therefore, the ruler, without going beyond his family, completes the lessons for the State. There is filial piety:—therewith the Sovereign should be served. There is fraternal submission:—therewith elders and superiors should be served. There is kindness:—therewith the multitude should be treated.

弟,去聲。長,上聲。〇身脩,則家可教矣。孝、弟、慈,所以脩身而教於家者也。然而國之所以事君、事長、使眾之道,不外乎此,此所以家齊於上,而教成於下也。

《康誥》曰:“如保赤子。”心誠求之,雖不中不遠矣。未有學養子而後嫁者也!

In the Announcement to Kang, it is said, “Act as if you were watching over an infant.” If (a mother) is really anxious about it, though she may not hit exactly the wants of her infant, she will not be far from doing so. There never has been a girl who learned to bring up a child, that she might afterwards marry.

中,去聲。此引《書》而釋之,又明立教之本不假強爲,在識其端而推廣之耳。

一家仁,一國興仁;一家讓,一國興讓;一人貪戾,一國作亂:其機如此。此謂一言僨事,一人定國。

From the loving example of one family a whole State becomes loving, and from its courtesies the whole State becomes courteous, while, from the ambition and perverseness of the One man, the whole State may be led to rebellious disorder;— such is the nature of the influence. This verifies the saying, “Affairs may be ruined by a single sentence; a kingdom may be settled by its One man.”

僨,音“奮”。〇一人,謂君也。機,發動所由也。僨,覆敗也。此言教成于國之效。

堯、舜帥天下以仁,而民從之;桀、紂帥天下以暴,而民從之;其所令反其所好,而民不從。是故,君子有諸己,而后求諸人;無諸己,而后非諸人。所藏乎身不恕,而能喻諸人者,未之有也。

Yao and Shun led on the kingdom with benevolence, and the people followed them. Jie and Zhou led on the kingdom with violence, and people followed them. The orders which these issued were contrary to the practices which they loved, and so the people did not follow them. On this account, the ruler must himself be possessed of the good qualities, and then he may require them in the people. He must not have the bad qualities in himself, and then he may require that they shall not be in the people. Never has there been a man, who, not having reference to his own character and wishes in dealing with others, was able effectually to instruct them.

好,去聲。〇此又承上文一人定國而言。有善於己,然後可以責人之善。無惡於己,然後可以正人之惡。皆推己以及人,所謂“恕”也。不如是,則所令反其所好,而民不從矣。喻,曉也。

故治國在齊其家。

Thus we see how the government of the State depends on the regulation of the family.

通結上文。

《詩》云:“桃之夭夭,其葉蓁蓁。之子於歸,宜其家人。”宜其家人,而后可以教國人。

In the Book of Poetry, it is said, “That peach tree, so delicate and elegant! How luxuriant is its foliage! This girl is going to her husband's house. She will rightly order her household.” Let the household be rightly ordered, and then the people of the State may be taught.

夭,平聲。蓁,音“臻”。〇《詩·周南·桃夭》之篇。夭夭,少好貌。蓁蓁,美盛貌。興也。之子,猶言是子,此指女子之嫁者而言也。婦人謂嫁曰歸。宜,猶善也。

《詩》云:“宜兄宜弟。”宜兄宜弟,而后可以教國人。

In the Book of Poetry, it is said, “They can discharge their duties to their elder brothers. They can discharge their duties to their younger brothers.” Let the ruler discharge his duties to his elder and younger brothers, and then he may teach the people of the State.

《詩·小雅·蓼蕭》篇。

《詩》云:“其儀不忒,正是四國。”其爲父子兄弟足法,而后民法之也。

In the Book of Poetry, it is said, “In his deportment there is nothing wrong; he rectifies all the people of the State.” Yes; when the ruler, as a father, a son, and a brother, is a model, then the people imitate him.

《詩·曹風·鳴鳩》篇。忒,差也。

此謂治國在齊其家。

This is what is meant by saying, “The government of his kingdom depends on his regulation of the family.”

此三引《詩》,皆以詠歎上文之事,而又結之如此。其味深長,最宜潛玩。

右傳之九章,釋齊家、治國。

The above ninth chapter of commentary explains regulating the family and governing the kingdom.


所謂平天下在治其國者:上老老而民興孝,上長長而民興弟,上恤孤而民不倍,是以君子有絜矩之道也。

What is meant by “The making the whole kingdom peaceful and happy depends on the government of his State,” is this:— When the sovereign behaves to his aged, as the aged should be behaved to, the people become filial; when the sovereign behaves to his elders, as the elders should be behaved to, the people learn brotherly submission; when the sovereign treats compassionately the young and helpless, the people do the same. Thus the ruler has a principle with which, as with a measuring-square, he may regulate his conduct.

長,上聲。弟,去聲。倍,與“背”同。絜,胡結反。〇老老,所謂“老吾老”也。興,謂有所感發而興起也。孤者,幼而無父之稱。絜,度也。矩,所以爲方也。言此三者,上行下效,捷於影響,所謂家齊而國治也。亦可以見人心之所同,而不可使有一夫之不獲矣。是以君子必當因其所同,推以度物,使彼我之間各得分願,則上下四旁均齊方正,而天下平矣。

所惡于上,毋以使下;所惡于下,毋以事上;所惡于前,毋以先後;所惡于後,毋以從前;所惡于右,毋以交于左;所惡于左,毋以交於右:此之謂絜矩之道。

What a man dislikes in his superiors, let him not display in the treatment of his inferiors; what he dislikes in inferiors, let him not display in the service of his superiors; what he hates in those who are before him, let him not therewith precede those who are behind him; what he hates in those who are behind him, let him not therewith follow those who are before him; what he hates to receive on the right, let him know him not bestow on the left; what he hates to receive on the left, let him not bestow on the right— this is what is called “The principle with which, as with a measuring-square, to regulate one's conduct.”

惡、先,並去聲。〇此覆解上文“絜矩”二字之義。如不欲上之無禮於我,則必以此度下之心,而亦不敢以此無禮使之。不欲下之不忠於我,則必以此度上之心,而亦不敢以此不忠事之。至於前後左右,無不皆然,則身之所處,上下四旁,長短廣狹,彼此如一,而無不方矣。彼同有是心而興起焉者,又豈有一夫之不獲哉?所操者約,而所及者廣,此平天下之要道也。故章內之意,皆自此而推之。

《詩》云:“樂只君子,民之父母。”民之所好好之,民之所惡惡之,此之謂民之父母。

In the Book of Poetry, it is said, “How much to be rejoiced in are these princes, the parents of the people!” When a prince loves what the people love, and hates what the people hate, then is he what is called the parent of the people.

樂,音洛。只,音紙。好、惡,並去聲,下並同。〇《詩·小雅·南山有臺》之篇。只,語助辭。言能絜矩而以民心爲己心,則是愛民如子,而民愛之如父母矣。

《詩》云:“節彼南山,維石巖巖,赫赫師尹,民具爾瞻。”有國者不可以不愼,辟則爲天下僇矣。

In the Book of Poetry, it is said, “Lofty is that southern hill, with its rugged masses of rocks! Greatly distinguished are you, O grand-teacher Yin, the people all look up to you.” Rulers of States may not neglect to be careful. If they deviate to a mean selfishness, they will be a disgrace in the kingdom.

節,讀爲截。辟,讀爲僻。僇,與“戮”同。〇《詩·小雅·節南山》之篇。節,截然高大貌。師尹,周太師尹氏也。具,俱也。辟,偏也。言在上者人所瞻仰,不可不謹。若不能絜矩,而好惡殉於一己之偏,則身弒國亡,爲天下之大戮矣。

《詩》云:“殷之未喪師,克配上帝。儀監于殷,峻命不易。”道得眾則得國,失眾則失國。

In the Book of Poetry, it is said, “Before the sovereigns of the Yin dynasty had lost the hearts of the people, they could appear before God. Take warning from the house of Yin. The great decree is not easily preserved.” This shows that, by gaining the people, the kingdom is gained, and, by losing the people, the kingdom is lost.

喪,去聲。儀,《詩》作“宜”。峻,《詩》作“駿”。易,去聲。〇《詩·文王》篇。師,眾也。配,對也。配上帝,言其爲天下君,而對乎上帝也。監,視也。峻,大也。不易,言難保也。道,言也。引《詩》而言此,以結上文兩節之意。有天下者,能存此心而不失,則所以絜矩而與民同欲者,自不能已矣。

是故,君子先愼乎德。有德此有人,有人此有土,有土此有財,有財此有用。

On this account, the ruler will first take pains about his own virtue. Possessing virtue will give him the people. Possessing the people will give the territory. Possessing the territory will give him its wealth. Possessing the wealth, he will have resources for expenditure.

先愼乎德,承上文不可不愼而言。德,卽所謂明德。有人,謂得眾。有土,謂得國。有國則不患無財用矣。

德者,本也。財者,末也。

Virtue is the root; wealth is the result.

本上文而言。

外本內末,爭民施奪。

If he make the root his secondary object, and the result his primary, he will only wrangle with his people, and teach them rapine.

人君以德爲外,以財爲內,則是爭鬥其民,而施之以劫奪之教也。葢財者,人之所同欲。不能絜矩而欲專之,則民亦起而爭奪矣。

是故,財聚則民散,財散則民聚。

Hence, the accumulation of wealth is the way to scatter the people; and the letting it be scattered among them is the way to collect the people.

外本內末,故財聚。爭民施奪,故民散。反是,則有德而有人矣。

是故,言悖而出者,亦悖而入;貨悖而入者,亦悖而出。

And hence, the ruler's words going forth contrary to right will come back to him in the same way, and wealth, gotten by improper ways, will take its departure by the same.

悖,布內反。〇悖,逆也。此以言之出入,明貨之出入也。自先愼乎德以下至此,又因財貨以明能絜矩與不能者之得失也。

《康誥》曰:“惟命不于常!”道善則得之,不善則失之矣。

In the Announcement to Kang, it is said, “The decree indeed may not always rest on us;” that is, goodness obtains the decree, and the want of goodness loses it.

道,言也。因上文引《文王》詩之意而申言之,其丁寧反復之意,益深切矣。

《楚書》曰:“楚國無以爲寶,惟善以爲寶。”

In the Book of Chu, it is said, “The kingdom of Chu does not consider that to be valuable. It values, instead, its good men.”

《楚書》,《楚語》。言不寶金玉,而寶善人也。

舅犯曰:“亡人無以爲寶,仁親以爲寶。”

Duke Wen's uncle, Fàn, said, “Our fugitive does not account that to be precious. What he considers precious is the affection due to his parent.

舅犯,晉文公舅狐偃,字子犯。亡人,文公時爲公子,出亡在外也。仁,愛也。事見《檀弓》。此兩節又明不外本而內末之意。

《秦誓》曰:“若有一介臣,斷斷兮無他技,其心休休焉,其如有容焉。人之有技,若己有之,人之彥聖,其心好之,不啻若自其口出,寔能容之,以能保我子孫黎民,尚亦有利哉。人之有技,媢疾以惡之,人之彥聖,而違之俾不通,寔不能容,以不能保我子孫黎民,亦曰殆哉。”

In the Declaration of the duke of Qin, it is said, “Let me have but one minister, plain and sincere, not pretending to other abilities, but with a simple, upright, mind; and possessed of generosity, regarding the talents of others as though he himself possessed them, and, where he finds accomplished and perspicacious men, loving them in his heart more than his mouth expresses, and really showing himself able to bear them and employ them:—such a minister will be able to preserve my sons and grandsons and black-haired people, and benefits likewise to the kingdom may well be looked for from him. But if it be his character, when he finds men of ability, to be jealous and hate them; and, when he finds accomplished and perspicacious men, to oppose them and not allow their advancement, showing himself really not able to bear them:—such a minister will not be able to protect my sons and grandsons and black-haired people; and may he not also be pronounced dangerous to the State?”

个,古賀反。《書》作“介”。斷,丁亂反。媢,音冒。〇《秦誓》,《周書》。斷斷,誠一之貌。彥,美士也。聖,通明也。尚,庶幾也。媢,忌也。違,拂戾也。殆,危也。

唯仁人放流之,迸諸四夷,不與同中國。此謂唯仁人爲能愛人,能惡人。

It is only the truly virtuous man who can send away such a man and banish him, driving him out among the barbarous tribes around, determined not to dwell along with him in the Middle Kingdom. This is in accordance with the saying, It is only the truly virtuous man who can love or who can hate others.

迸,讀爲屏,古字通用。〇迸,猶逐也。言有此媢疾之人,妨賢而病國,則仁人必深惡而痛絕之。以其至公無私,故能得好惡之正如此也。

見賢而不能舉,舉而不能先,命也;見不善而不能退,退而不能遠,過也。

To see men of worth and not be able to raise them to office;to raise them to office, but not to do so quickly:— this is disrespectful. To see bad men and not be able to remove them;to remove them, but not to do so to a distance:— this is weakness.

命,鄭氏云:“當作‘慢’。”程子云:“當作‘怠’。”未詳孰是。遠,去聲。〇若此者,知所愛惡矣,而未能盡愛惡之道,葢君子而未仁者也。

好人之所惡,惡人之所好,是謂拂人之性,菑必逮夫身。

To love those whom men hate, and to hate those whom men love;— this is to outrage the natural feeling of men. Calamities cannot fail to come down on him who does so.

菑,古“災”字。夫,音扶。〇拂,逆也。好善而惡惡,人之性也。至於拂人之性,則不仁之甚者也。自《秦誓》至此,又皆以申言好惡公私之極,以明上文所引《南山有臺》、《節南山》之意。

是故,君子有大道,必忠信以得之,驕泰以失之。

Thus we see that the sovereign has a great course to pursue. He must show entire self-devotion and sincerity to attain it, and by pride and extravagance he will fail of it.

君子,以位言之。道,謂居其位而修己治人之術。發己自盡爲忠,循物無違謂信。驕者矜高,泰者侈肆。此因上所引《文王》《康誥》之意而言。章內三言得失,而語益加切,葢至此而天理存亡之幾決矣。

生財有大道,生之者眾,食之者寡,爲之者疾,用之者舒,則財恒足矣。

There is a great course also for the production of wealth. Let the producers be many and the consumers few. Let there be activity in the production, and economy in the expenditure. Then the wealth will always be sufficient.

恒,胡登反。〇呂氏曰:“國無遊民,則生者眾矣。朝無幸位,則食者寡矣。不奪農時,則爲之疾矣。量入爲出,則用之舒矣。”愚按:此因有土有財而言,以明足國之道,在乎務本而節用,非必外本內末,而後財可聚也。自此以至終篇,皆一意也。

仁者以財發身,不仁者以身發財。

The virtuous ruler, by means of his wealth, makes himself more distinguished. The vicious ruler accumulates wealth, at the expense of his life.

發,猶起也。仁者散財以得民,不仁者亡身以殖貨。

未有上好仁而下不好義者也,未有好義其事不終者也,未有府庫財非其財者也。

Never has there been a case of the sovereign loving benevolence, and the people not loving righteousness. Never has there been a case where the people have loved righteousness, and the affairs of the sovereign have not been carried to completion. And never has there been a case where the wealth in such a State, collected in the treasuries and arsenals, did not continue in the sovereign's possession.

上好仁以愛其下,則下好義以忠其上;所以事必有終,而府庫之財無悖出之患也。

孟獻子曰:“畜馬乘,不察於雞豚。伐冰之家,不畜牛羊。百乘之家,不畜聚斂之臣。與其有聚斂之臣,寧有盜臣。”此謂國不以利爲利,以義爲利也。

The officer Meng Xian said, “He who keeps horses and a carriage does not look after fowls and pigs. The family which keeps its stores of ice does not rear cattle or sheep. So, the house which possesses a hundred chariots should not keep a minister to look out for imposts that he may lay them on the people. Than to have such a minister, it were better for that house to have one who should rob it of its revenues. This is in accordance with the saying:— “In a State, pecuniary gain is not to be considered to be prosperity, but its prosperity will be found in righteousness.

畜,許六反。乘、斂,並去聲。〇孟獻子,魯之賢大夫仲孫蔑也。畜馬乘,士初試爲大夫者也。伐冰之家,卿大夫以上,喪祭用冰者也。百乘之家,有采地者也。君子甯亡己之財,而不忍傷民之力;故寧有盜臣,而不畜聚斂之臣。“此謂”以下,釋獻子之言也。

長國家而務財用者,必自小人矣。彼爲善之,小人之使爲國家,菑害並至。雖有善者,亦無如之何矣!此謂國不以利爲利,以義爲利也。

When he who presides over a State or a family makes his revenues his chief business, he must be under the influence of some small, mean man. He may consider this man to be good; but when such a person is employed in the administration of a State or family, calamities from Heaven, and injuries from men, will befal it together, and, though a good man may take his place, he will not be able to remedy the evil. This illustrates again the saying, In a State, gain is not to be considered prosperity, but its prosperity will be found in righteousness.

長,上聲。“彼爲善之”,此句上下疑有闕文誤字。〇自,由也,言由小人導之也。此一節,深明以利爲利之害,而重言以結之,其丁寧之意切矣。

右傳之十章,釋治國、平天下。

The above tenth chapter of commentary explains the government of the state, and the making the peaceful and happy.

此章之義,務在與民同好惡而不專其利,皆推廣絜矩之意也。能如是,則親賢樂利各得其所,而天下平矣。凡傳十章:前四章統論綱領指趣,後六章細論條目功夫。其第五章【釋格物致知,朱子所補之文】乃明善之要,第六章【釋誠意】乃誠身之本,在初學尤爲當務之急,讀者不可以其近而忽之也。

 

(《<大學>章句》)

 

朱 熹 刊 定 《大 學》正 文

大 學

大學之道,在明明德,在親民,在止於至善。

知止而后有定,定而后能靜,靜而后能安,安而后能慮,慮而后能得。物有本末,事有終始,知所先後,則近道矣。

古之欲明明德於天下者,先治其國;欲治其國者,先齊其家;欲齊其家者,先脩其身;欲脩其身者,先正其心;欲正其心者,先誠其意;欲誠其意者,先致其知;致知在格物。物格而后知至,知至而后意誠,意誠而后心正,心正而后身脩,身脩而后家齊,家齊而后國治,國治而后天下平。

自天子以至於庶人,壹是皆以脩身爲本。其本亂而末治者,否矣。其所厚者薄,而其所薄者厚,未之有也!

《康誥》曰:“克明德。”《大甲》曰:“顧諟天之明命。”《帝典》曰:“克明峻德。”皆自明也。

湯之《盤銘》曰:“苟日新,日日新,又日新。”《康誥》曰:“作新民。”《詩》曰:“周雖舊邦,其命惟新。”是故,君子無所不用其極。

《詩》云:“邦畿千里,惟民所止。”《詩》云:“緡蠻黃鳥,止於丘隅。”子曰:“於止,知其所止,可以人而不如鳥乎!”《詩》云:“穆穆文王,於緝熙敬止!”爲人君,止於仁;爲人臣,止於敬;爲人子,止於孝;爲人父,止于慈;與國人交,止於信。《詩》云:“瞻彼淇澳,菉竹猗猗。有斐君子,如切如磋,如琢如磨。瑟兮僩兮,赫兮喧兮。有斐君子,終不可諠兮!”如切如磋者,道學也;如琢如磨者,自脩也;瑟兮僩兮者,恂栗也;赫兮喧兮者,威儀也;有斐君子,終不可諠兮者,道盛德至善,民之不能忘也。《詩》云:“於戲前王不忘!”君子賢其賢而親其親,小人樂其樂而利其利,此以沒世不忘也。

子曰:“聽訟,吾猶人也,必也使無訟乎!”無情者不得盡其辭。大畏民志,此謂知本。

此謂知本,此謂知之至也。

所謂誠其意者:毋自欺也,如惡惡臭,如好好色,此之謂自謙,故君子必愼其獨也!小人閒居爲不善,無所不至,見君子而後厭然,揜其不善,而著其善。人之視己,如見其肺肝然,則何益矣?此謂誠於中,形於外,故君子必愼其獨也。曾子曰:“十目所視,十手所指,其嚴乎!”富潤屋,德潤身,心寬體胖,故君子必誠其意。

所謂脩身在正其心者:身有所忿懥,則不得其正;有所恐懼,則不得其正;有所好樂,則不得其正;有所憂患,則不得其正。心不在焉,視而不見,聽而不聞,食而不知其味。此謂脩身在正其心。

所謂齊其家在脩其身者:人之其所親愛而辟焉,之其所賤惡而辟焉,之其所畏敬而辟焉,之其所哀矜而辟焉,之其所敖惰而辟焉。故好而知其惡,惡而知其美者,天下鮮矣!故諺有之曰:“人莫知其子之惡,莫知其苗之碩。”此謂身不脩不可以齊其家。

所謂治國必先齊其家者:其家不可教而能教人者,無之。故君子不出家而成教于國:孝者,所以事君也;弟者,所以事長也;慈者,所以使眾也。《康誥》曰:“如保赤子。”心誠求之,雖不中不遠矣。未有學養子而後嫁者也!一家仁,一國興仁;一家讓,一國興讓;一人貪戾,一國作亂:其機如此。此謂一言僨事,一人定國。堯舜帥天下以仁,而民從之;桀紂帥天下以暴,而民從之;其所令反其所好,而民不從。是故君子有諸己而後求諸人,無諸己而後非諸人。所藏乎身不恕,而能喻諸人者,未之有也。故治國在齊其家。《詩》云:“桃之夭夭,其葉蓁蓁;之子於歸,宜其家人。”宜其家人,而后可以教國人。《詩》云:“宜兄宜弟。”宜兄宜弟,而後可以教國人。《詩》云:“其儀不忒,正是四國。”其爲父子兄弟足法,而後民法之也。此謂治國在齊其家。

所謂平天下在治其國者:上老老而民興孝,上長長而民興弟,上恤孤而民不倍,是以君子有絜矩之道也。所惡于上,毋以使下;所惡于下,毋以事上;所惡于前,毋以先後;所惡于後,毋以從前;所惡于右,毋以交于左;所惡于左,毋以交於右:此之謂絜矩之道。《詩》云:“樂只君子,民之父母。”民之所好好之,民之所惡惡之,此之謂民之父母。《詩》云:“節彼南山,維石岩岩,赫赫師尹,民具爾瞻。”有國者不可以不愼,辟則爲天下僇矣。《詩》云:“殷之未喪師,克配上帝。儀監于殷,峻命不易。”道得眾則得國,失眾則失國。是故,君子先愼乎德。有德此有人,有人此有土,有土此有財,有財此有用。德者本也,財者末也,外本內末,爭民施奪。是故財聚則民散,財散則民聚。是故言悖而出者,亦悖而入;貨悖而入者,亦悖而出。《康誥》曰:“惟命不于常!”道善則得之,不善則失之矣。《楚書》曰:“楚國無以爲寶,惟善以爲寶。”舅犯曰:“亡人無以爲寶,仁親以爲寶。”《秦誓》曰:“若有一个臣,斷斷兮無他技,其心休休焉,其如有容焉。人之有技,若己有之,人之彥聖,其心好之,不啻若自其口出,寔能容之,以能保我子孫黎民,尚亦有利哉。人之有技,媢疾以惡之,人之彥聖,而違之俾不通,寔不能容,以不能保我子孫黎民,亦曰殆哉。”見賢而不能舉,舉而不能先,命也;見不善而不能退,退而不能遠,過也。好人之所惡,惡人之所好,是謂拂人之性,菑必逮夫身。是故君子有大道,必忠信以得之,驕泰以失之。生財有大道,生之者眾,食之者寡,爲之者疾,用之者舒,則財恒足矣。仁者以財發身,不仁者以身發財。未有上好仁而下不好義者也,未有好義其事不終者也,未有府庫財非其財者也。孟獻子曰:“畜馬乘,不察於雞豚。伐冰之家,不畜牛羊。百乘之家,不畜聚斂之臣。與其有聚斂之臣,寧有盜臣。”此謂國不以利爲利,以義爲利也。長國家而務財用者,必自小人矣。彼爲善之,小人之使爲國家,菑害並至。雖有善者,亦無如之何矣!此謂國不以利爲利,以義爲利也。

 

(朱子刊定《大學》)

    全站熱搜

    lichen1943 發表在 痞客邦 留言(6) 人氣()